Sunday, September 22, 2019

African Americans Consequence Essay Example for Free

African Americans Consequence Essay The African Americans played a major role before and after the Civil War, beginning from 1861 to 1870, which helped shape the course and consequences of the Civil War. In determining how African Americans shaped the course and consequences of the Civil War, one must assess how African Americans were given more opportunities. Politically, African Americans began to have a role in voting and to have the President and Republican Party fight for their full freedom. Socially, the African American’s class began to be looked at differently. Ideologically, the African Americans were being looked at as equal and made sure that people knew they were people too. Although African Americans had to continue to fight for their equality, they did, in fact, shape the course and consequences of the Civil War by having political, ideological, and social actions. African Americans had no rights to vote or involve themselves in politics but that changed after the Civil War. Giving African Americans the right to vote shaped the consequences of the Civil War by African American’s views being looked at as well. On August 1865, the Convention of the Colored People of Virginia was proceeded which claimed that since African Americans are free, they deserve to vote (Doc H). The African Americans spoke of being given suffrage, and then they were given the right to vote. This shaped a consequence of the Civil War because the African American’s views were no longer over looked. During the Civil War, no one J. Crespo P a g e | 2 paid attention to what the African Americans wanted but afterward, they were granted the voice to speak about what they wanted. After being heard and given the right to vote, the African Americans had participation in Constitutional Conventions. A map shows the following: the participation of African Americans and Whites in Constitutional Conventions during 1867-1868. (Doc J). Politically, the whites did not want to be overtaken by the African Americans, so they had a larger participation to overrule the African Americans. The whites wanted a powerful Democratic Party that supported their wanting. The African Americans still participated in the conventions to make sure the Republic Party was strong enough to continue to give the African American their rights. African Americans participating in the Constitutional Conventions shaped one of the consequences of the Civil War by not letting whites take over the political system. Not only did the African Americans have a consequence politically with being heard and not having white supremacy, politically African Americans were also given their freedom. African Americans were being given their freedom. Politically, African Americans were being granted a change in society. Abraham Lincoln published a letter on August 26, 1863 that proposed the following: the African Americans as a whole, everywhere, should be granted their freedom for they fought for the North (Doc C). Abraham Lincoln was trying to persuade the Whites to agree on freedom for the African Americans in the United States. African Americans were being freed everywhere instead of just the North. Politically, this helped the African Americans tremendously because they were going to be freed everywhere. One of the consequences was African Americans being freed in the North, but then African Americans were going to be freed everywhere, including the South. After the letter sent out by Abraham Lincoln, the Republican Party decided to try to get an amendment that freed all African Americans. In 1864, the Republican Party’s platform stated the following: they wanted an Amendment to J. Crespo P a g e | 3 officially end slavery everywhere (Doc D). Politically, the African Americans were beginning to be seen as people throughout the nation. This consequence after the Civil War proved that African Americans were no longer going to be slaves anywhere. African Americans found their freedom with the help of the political power of Abraham Lincoln and Republican Party. Then the African Americans were socially looked at differently. The African Americans were no longer such a low class because people began to look at them differently and notice the good things about African Americans. Socially, the African Americans were being helped by the people. On July 30 1861 General Benjamin F. Butler reported to the secretary of the war stating the following: the African Americans should be free since they are a part of the North (Doc A). Socially, the North no longer presented the African Americans as property. This shaped the Civil War because the African Americans became part of the Union that fought for the North. Then after the Civil War was won and the African Americans were freed, their school system proved them socially equal and good as the whites. In March 1864, Charlotte Forten, an African American teacher in South Carolina Sea Islands, said the following: she spoke of how happy the African American children were to learn and how much knowledge they have attained (Doc E). Socially, the African Americans were no longer looked at as less smart than the Whites. The consequence of the Civil War with the African Americans socially with schools showed their equality to whites. Socially, the African Americans were no longer looked at as slaves or less knowledgeable. The African Americans, ideologically, were no longer looked as property. The African Americans were beginning to be looked at the same as the whites. The African Americans no longer were looked at as property. Ideologically, the African Americans caused a consequence of the Civil War to be looked at as people. On March 7, 1864 in The New J. Crespo P a g e | 4 York Times it stated the following: African Americans have gone through a drastic change to now be free Americans in the United States equal to the whites (Doc F). The African Americans were no longer the property they were once known of; African Americans were people just as the Whites. Ideologically, this proved that a consequence of the Civil War was the change of equality that African Americans had. After The New York Times had posted the article, Thomas Nast from Harper’s Weekly on August 5 1865 had posted the following: a picture of lady liberty standing next to an African American Union Solider asking â€Å"And Not This Man? † (Doc G). Ideologically, the picture proved that the people no longer were going to look at African Americans as property so they should be treated equal. The North wanted the South to have the same thoughts about African Americans. This set a consequence of the Civil War by having the African Americans no longer being looked at as slaves as they were when the war had begun. After the African Americans were no longer looked at as property, the African Americans made sure the Whites thought of them as people no matter what. African Americans were going to deal with racism and injustice but they made sure that the whites knew they were people also. Ideologically, the African American consequence after the Civil War was that African Americans are people, not slaves nor property. On August 20 1862 in New York during the resolution of African Americans in Newtown, African Americans stated the following: they wanted to make sure that the President knew that they were not going to leave because the United States was their country also that they were going to fight in for their freedom (Doc B). This constructed the course of the Civil War because the African Americans began fighting in the Civil War. Ideologically, African Americans were looked at as people in the nation of the United States to fight along the Whites for their freedom and country. After the Civil War, when African Americans were no longer slaves and granted their freedom, some J. Crespo P a g e | 5 whites resisted the full freedom of African Americans. In 1867 with Rebecca Parsons she went through the following: she went back to receive her kindred since she was a free slave but the owner would not allow her to because they were â€Å"his† (Doc I). Although, Parsons did not allow Rebecca her children it proved that Parsons realized she was also people because she demanded them back from him. Rebecca is no longer a slave who has to stand down, she also had rights which proved she is as equal as Parsons. Ideologically, after the Civil War this was a consequence by African Americans no longer being looked at differently because they were people also. African Americans ideologically created the course and consequence of the Civil War by being looked at as people and not slaves. African Americans shaped the course and consequences of the Civil War by ideological, social, and political reasoning. African Americans were known in the United States as slaves and property but they no longer were during and after the Civil War. They became people of equality to the whites in the United States. They no longer had no say in politics; they were given rights and opportunities to speak of their views. They no longer were viewed as property but people. Also, they weren’t the low class everyone had always labeled them as. African Americans helped the Union win the war to win themselves the freedom they deserved.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Rising Powers And Global Balance Of Power

Rising Powers And Global Balance Of Power No one can forecast the future with certainty, though immediate future can be predicted with relative correctness based on contemporary realities, tendencies and realities. The cold war has ended. The US no longer faces the constant threat of aggression from its erstwhile adversary, the former USSR. Did someone ever forecast the demise of USSR, US emerging as the sole super power or the attack on the Twin Towers? Aggression grows in unsettled or disorderly times and explodes in power vacuum. The world is dynamic and so is the notion of power. Throughout history we can see the Balance of Power Concept in action. The states of Europe held each other in balance through the first 300 years of the modern state system. The clearest example of the balance of power concept can be found in the Cold War wherein two superpowers, the US and the USSR, held world balance between them. Both states sought to deter domination by the other through arms buildup and the creation of strong systems of all iances. Today power is distributed in a pattern that resembles a complex three dimensional chess game. On the top chess board, military power is largely unipolar, on the middle, economic power is multipolar, the bottom is the realm of transnational relations that cross borders outside the government control which includes non state actors. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has been the sole super power in the world. No single state acted as effective counterweight to the US. However, some shifts have been witnessed recently due to globalization, market forces and operation of non state actors without regard for national boundaries and loyalties which has made the balancing phenomenon more complicated. Therefore, some recent studies in the field of International relations advocate that power politics including balancing of power has become obsolete and the theory of balance of power has lost its relevance. This phenomenon has raised a series of questions and just a few are:- a. Has the phenomenon of balance of power lost its relevance? b. Will the world be without any state in the global lead role? c. Is the world transforming to multipolarity? d. Are traditional measures and sources of power losing their relevance in the world? e. Are effects of globalization rendering the state borders and notion of sovereignty irrelevant? f. How are non state actors including VNSAs influencing the balance of power? g. Will the geo-economics really replace geo-politics? h. Will the current powers allow the shift in balance of power without violence? Scope Past and contemporary global order. Myths and realities of rising powers and global balance of power. Rising global trends in balance of power. Pakistan 2050, challenges and opportunities. Major conclusions and Recommendations for Pakistan HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF BALANCE OF POWER 4. Prehistoric and Medieval Periods. During the Period of the Warring States in China (403-221 BC), the development of large, cohesive states accompanied the creation of irrigation systems, bureaucracies, and large armies equipped with iron weapons. These Chinese states pursued power through a constantly shifting network of alliances. In ancient Greece during the Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BC), the rising power of Athens triggered the formation of a coalition of city-states that felt threatened by Athenian power. 5. Pre World Wars Period a. In the 17th century the Habsburg dynasty, which ruled Austria and Spain, threatened to dominate Europe. During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), a coalition that included Sweden, England, France, and The Netherlands defeated the rulers of the Habsburg Empire. b. Early in the 19th century, Napoleon repeatedly made efforts to conquer large areas of Europe. A broad coalition of European states-including Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia-defeated France in a series of major battles that climaxed with Napoleons defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. c. The classical European balance of power system emerged thereafter in an alliance known as the Concert of Europe, organized in 1815 by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. This loose alliance between Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France ensured that a handful of great powers would coexist, with none able to dominate the others. Under this system, and with Britain playing a balancer role, peace largely prevailed in Europe during the 19th century. It is not an accident that the doctrine of the balance of power-alike in international and in domestic politics-received its classic and most rigorous statements at a time when foreign policy was largely a matter for rulers who could use the war potential of their states for their own aggrandizement. It was because a ruler had to be able to wage effective war that he had to be allowed the armed force that contributed to his domestic control. d. British reliance on a navy rather than on a standing army was important to the growth of British liberties-and later to American liberty. In a sense, therefore, the international balance of power was needed to check the pretensions of rulers who lacked any effective domestic check. The balance of power, however, although it may act to restrain the actions of those who believe in the doctrine, is in the first instance a device to restrain others. 6. Inter and Intra World Wars Period (1914-1945) a. When World War I broke out, although all parties made some effort to maintain or protect the balance of power (which, of course, they interpreted differently), none of them could argue that governments, or princes, were behaving in the way that one would expect. German apologists had to contend that Germany was surrounded by malevolent foes and that the survival of Germany was at stake. The allies had to contend not merely that Germany was too powerful for comfort, but that German militarism threatened a European civilization that would otherwise be peaceful. The argument, in short, could not be cast in terms of the balance of power. b. In order to contain German and its allies, a formidable alliance was formed in Europe. German threat was such that USA broke away with the centuries long stand of neutrality and joined the alliance against Germany. Status quo however, was maintained in Europe. Historians will long continue to debate the causes that finally brought the United States into the war. c. Same was the case in World War II, where, a status quo was required to be maintained and German advances were to be stopped, alliance on the lines of World War I was formed. The alliance completely decapacitated German led axis powers. In both the World Wars, the entry of the United States so quickly and completely tilted the balance of power in favor of the side it joined. Had the United States been regarded as an element in the balance; the wars in the form they took would never have broken out and it is here that the world saw the introduction of WMD. 7. Cold War Period a. It was well recognized that the United States and the Soviet Union were in direct and unique competition. The appalling consequences of nuclear war introduced a new kind of stability. The so-called balance of terror or balance of deterrence ensured that each nuclear power was anxious not to give the other power any sort of signal that would justify an attack, and was also anxious not to identify such a signal. This caution was compatible with, and even required, an arms race. b. The ideological struggle reflected the knowledge of both great powers that they contended in a fast-changing world; and the Cold War began to lose intensity, not when the protagonists decided to abandon it but when world circumstances changed and new elements began to contribute to the balance. c. It became almost conventional to speak in terms of a world of four poles-the United States, the Soviet Union, Europe and Japan. d. US led West used all means and opportunities to balance Soviet military power and kept on trying to contain Soviet Union. On the other hand Soviet Union formed an alliance with the opposite block countries to counter the US. Struggle of countering each power continued till the Soviet Union finally collapsed. With the subsequent disintegration of the Soviet Union, the United States became incontrovertibly the worlds dominant power. 8. Post Cold War a. After the disintegration of Soviet Union, USA emerged as sole global power hence as per the ground realities, the entire world had to align its policies with the US. Without an apparent foe to challenge its security, the major question confronting U.S. foreign policy was what would succeed the Cold Wars bipolar balance of power. b. The issue among academics and political commentators was whether the United States should emphasize its dominant position as a unipolar global power, or seek a leading role in a tripolar or multipolar system. 9. Conclusions from Historical Perspective. In nut shell post cold war power balance is categorized by US unilateralism, Wests political, economic and social control to the extent that the situations symbolize with that of eighteenth and nineteenth centurys colonization. Striking conclusions of the post cold war power balance are as under:- a. The end of the Cold War in US and Europe and the ongoing integration of the European economies alongside attempts at greater political integration in the continent have given rise to a view that traditional concepts of security are no longer relevant. There is a powerful perception that the idea of the state and its sovereignty has been made irrelevant by processes that are taking place at both the global and local level. Concept of security has been widened to the extent that currently it includes everything under the sun. b. Concept of Balance of Power has also been changed from the known enemy threat to fear of unlimited unknowns. Interpretations of the balance has also been changed from balance among nation states to balance among civilizations and much beyond. c. Post cold war era reintroduces the phenomena of colonization with changed face of chaining the third world through economic, trade and technology transfer policies under the umbrella of IMF, world bank, various technological regimes and UN. MYTHS AND REALITIES OF RISING POWERS AND GLOBAL BALANCE OF POWER 10. Preamble: Balance of Power strategies amongst nations and regional and security alliances have been a recurrent and normal feature of global history. Power shifts when they take place generate corresponding responses in strategic jockeying by established powers to recreate new balance of power to ensure the continuance of the old established order. The present world order-characterized by an unprecedented number of democratic nations; a greater global prosperity, even with the current crisis, than the world has ever known; and a long peace among great powers-reflects American preferences, and was built and preserved by American power in all its political, economic, and military dimensions. The perception of US decline today is certainly understandable, given the dismal economic situation since 2008 and the nations large fiscal deficits, which, combined with the continuing growth of the Chinese, Indian, Brazilian, Turkish, and other economies, seem to portend a significant and irreversible shift in global economic power. Some of the pessimism is also due to the belief that the United States has lost favor, and therefore influence, in much of the world, because of its various responses to the attacks of September 11. The detainment facilities at Guantà ¡namo, the use of torture against suspected terrorists, and the widely condemned invasion of Iraq in 2003 have all tarnished the American brand and put a dent in Americas soft power-its ability to attract others to its point of view. With this broad perception of decline as the backdrop, every failure of the United States to get its way in the world tends to reinforce the impression. Powerful as this sense of decline may be, however, it deserves a more rigorous examination. Measuring changes in a nations relative power is a tricky business, but there are some basic indicators: the size and the influence of its economy relative to that of other powers; the magnitude of military power compared with that of potential adversaries; the degree of political influence it wields in the international system-all of which make up what the Chinese call comprehensive national power. Moreover, a great powers decline is the product of fundamental changes in the international distribution of various forms of power that usually occur over longer stretches of time. Great powers rarely decline suddenly. A war may bring them down, but even that is usually a symptom, and a culmination, of a longer process. After the brief overture we will now try to reconstruct the developments that are providing basis for the ongoing debates on the subject and also formulate basic definitions for the terms and phrases being used in this study. 11. Definitions Rising Power. Rising power is a national power having certain ingredients to threaten the status quo of global settings. Pedelford and Lincoln have described it as: Strength composed of economic, psychological, moral, military and political elements, successfully directed to the furtherance of national interests, co nstitute rising national power. In our opinion, this is by far the best definition of rising power in that it takes into consideration both classical and modern views regarding the sources of power and also touches on the objectives for which it is used. Rising power operates in international field in this sense. However, it should be noted that the concept of rising power is Relative, Conditional and Situational. Relativity of Rising Power. It is relative in that it has no absolute dimension. Power is rated by the effect it can bring about. State A may be powerful vis-à  -vis B but can at the same time be weaker than C. For instance, India is stronger than Brazil but at the same time weaker than China in terms of economic might. Conditional. Rising power is conditional in that it depends on variety of factors, the exact role of which is difficult to assess. States A and B may have equal resources, military strength etc yet they may differ in effective power. A strong sentiment of Nationalism, for instance, in State A may inspire popular support to government action and policies and may prepare the people for greater sacrifices. This is bound to add to As power. If any such sentiment is totally absent in State B and the nation is torn by intense internal dissentions, this may make it weaker vis-à  -vis A despite its equal or even superior resources and military preparedness. India and Brazil are cases in point. Situational. Rising power is situational in the sense that it depends on specific international situation. Despite unchanged condition of resources and military might of both, the power equation between States A and B may change because of changed international situation. B may at once become powerful vis-à  -vis A because of some favourable turn in the international situation. Development of friendly relations between America and India and the formation of an unwritten alliance between US, India and Israel has affected China and Pakistan equation with her neighbours. 12. Shift in Global Balance of Power A Myth or Reality The global shift of power to Asia and the global strategic dominance of the United States has been the subject of discussion since many years. Main theme of the debates and discussion is that whether United States power is in absolute decline or relative decline. Either way, with the global shift of power to Asia what would inevitably follow is that the global balance of power would also be acquiring newer contours. The shape of the global order is largely a function of the prevailing balance of power. As discussed earlier, since 1945, this global order has been dominated by the United States, a question arises that will the relative U.S. decline and the rise of the rest lead to the decaying of this established order? The international system is both complex and contradictory at the same time. The world being dynamic, predictions and forecasts tend to be subjective than objective. Nobody predicted at least not out loud- the fall of the Berlin Wall, Japans loss of influence, the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001, the upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism, Arab Spring and the meteoric rise of the oil prices. Without wishing to predict the future, and instead taking the current situation as a starting point, the international system is characterized by three general tendencies. a. A new international order which is both uni and multi-polar at the same time. b. The rise of Asia (China) which will come to dominate the 21st century in the economic dimensions of world order. c. The (re)enforcing of the religion. 13. New Uni and Multi-Polar International Order a. Moving Towards Geo-Economics. During the Cold War, international system was differentiated by the ideological confrontation between two superpowers. In the early stage of the post Cold War, the tripartite world dominated by Europe, the USA and Japan characterized the environment. The current constellation of global forces and alliances is much less clear than it was in the two previous stages. In this third stage, a world order which is multi-polar and uni-polar at the same time is taking shape. It amounts to an a la carte menu which makes room for both old and new powers as well as old and new alliances. The world is uni-polar in the military and political spheres on account of the clear domination of USA, and multi-polar in all other facets of international relations. The upcoming world economies of the BRICS-countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South-Africa) up to now seem to follow an approach of pursuing geo-economics while avoiding to reopen the existing conflicts, at least for the time being. China is following a comprehensive approach towards national power. India is also pursuing geo economics while simultaneously modernizing its military might for a more dominant and perceived global role. Other countries and alliances/blocks also follow to varying extent different models to modernize their economies. Sanjaya Baru puts it: Indias economic opening up in 1991 created the basis for Indias re-integration with not just the global economy but also its own wider Asian neighborhood. That was the geopolitical and strategic consequence of Indias improved economic performance and greater openness since 1991. Indias Look East and Look West policies were logical consequences of her re-integration into the global economy. The geo-economic and geopolitical consequences of the reforms of 1991 were not an accident. They were well understood at the time based on an analysis of what had happened to the closed Soviet and Soviet-style economies in the 1970s and especially 1980s, and the open economies of east Asia, including Dengist China.  [1]   b. Contemporary Political Order-Future Trajectories. No phenomenon dominates the current global political landscape more than the USA being the sole Super Power. The US is currently the only country that has the military might that influences global affairs and deploys military power across the globe. However, there are other power centers such as China, EU and Russia. NATO also figures out at this power calculus. Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Republic in 1990, the erstwhile Cold War ensured a balance of power which greatly stabilized the global political landscape. In contrast however, the current uni-polarism has presented attendant consequences for the world. This has been seen in unprecedented anti US sentiment around the globe. Conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and the US- Iran debacle therefore reflect a current global political system which is becoming increasingly unstable partly due to US unilateralism. 14. The New Hierarchy of International States Although there are many other players in the globalised world multinational companies, the churches, and social movements amongst them nation states continue to determine the pecking order of international power. The European Union (EU) is no exception to this. Its principle springboard into the international arena is economic, both diplomatic and military spheres remaining the prerogative of member states. Its failure to present itself to the world as a body which acts and speaks with one voice, means that the European model of using integration as an instrument for international influence has not succeeded in establishing itself as an alternative to the nation state. When considering the international state hierarchy, various terms continue to co-exist which have not been clearly defined: (1) superpower (USA), (2) global power or great global power (China, India, Russia), (3) emerging powers (Brazil, Russia, India, China, BRIC), (4) medium sized powers (Brazil, Canada, South Africa and others), (5) regional power (several), (6) smaller powers (Luxemburg or Haiti, for example). a. Superpower and Global/ great power. When considering the international state hierarchy, various terms continue to co-exist which have not been clearly defined. To belong to the category of Super Power like USA or global/ great power like China, India and Russia. Besides quantifiable statistics, two components which are more difficult to evaluate are prerequisites: first of all, an efficient diplomacy and foreign policy capable of projecting power and, secondly, the perception and/or recognition of that status of power by third party countries. In line with these criteria, the following quantifiable data allow us to single out a number of influential countries by size, economic weight, growth, military capacity or their contribution to the international system. Apart from these criteria, there are other factors which allow us to reassess certain countries in the international hierarchy: above all, the demand for energy, which justifies the international importance of Iran, Iraq and even Russia in the international system. To a large extent, oil also explains Middle Eastern countries strategic position in international politics. After all, a third of all black gold is produced in Arab states. Another criteria is a countrys technological level, something which explains, amongst other things, Chinas economic success (electronics industry) and also Indias (software). Another more recent element is the use of religion as a political instrument, justifying the international relevance which countries like Israel, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan have acquired in recent years. b. Emerging Powers, Medium Size/Regional and Smaller Powers. In terms of quantifiable data, China tops the list along with India and Brazil, in the hierarchy of international power. Other countries (like Mexico, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia or South Africa) are on the waiting list or in the second row. Amongst these, it is worth distinguishing between soft powers and hard powers, depending on the resources, military, economic, diplomatic or cultural. In line with this, apart from the so-called BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) whose basis is economic, other emerging powers with global influence can be identified: in terms of hard, or military power, Pakistan (nuclear power) and Iran (potential nuclear power), in terms of economic weight, Mexico and South Africa and, for reasons of population, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nigeria also feature. 15. Emerging Blocks. It is commonly perceived that some emerging blocks and regional alliances like SCO, ASEAN and BRICS respectively will gradually transform the existing power balance in the future. a. Shanghai Cooperation Organization SCO. SCO was originally founded to counter terrorism and separatism on its member states territory. The security interests of the organization are now increasingly complemented by economic and trade issues. The bloc is expected to counter US influence in areas including Chinese neighborhood and Russias near abroad. b. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). An acronym for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa combined. The general consensus is that the term was first prominently used in a Goldman Sachs report from 2003, which speculated that by 2050 these five economies would be wealthier than most of the current major economic powers. The BRICS thesis posits that China and India will become the worlds dominant suppliers of manufactured goods and services, respectively, while Brazil and Russia will become similarly dominant as suppliers of raw materials. It is important to note that the Goldman Sachs thesis isnt that these countries are a political alliance (like the European Union) or a formal trading association but they have the potential to form a powerful economic bloc. BRICS is now also used as a more generic marketing term to refer to these four emerging economies. 16. Regionalism. The study of regions, regionalism, regionalization, regional governance, regional integration, regional cooperation and other proximate terms have burgeoned since the 1990s, along with the real world emergence of the so called new regionalism in that period. Major regional forums include the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Organization of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to count few of them. Regionalism appears to be growing rapidly. Regionalism in fact is a byproduct of globalization, yet, it offers a collective response to the coercive dimensions of globalization. Therefore, the political unanimity of thought against countries of a particular regional organization such as ASEAN, would not be easy to muster when seen in the backdrop of such coercion if applied against a country which is not part of any such regional dispensation. The core regions are politically stable and economic ally dynamic. They organize for the sake of being better able to control the rest of the world, the world outside their own region. The intermediate regions are closely linked to the core regions. They will be incorporated as soon as they conform to the criterion of core-ness, that is, economic development and political stability. The peripheral regions, in contrast, are politically turbulent and economically stagnant. Consequently they must organize in order to arrest a process of marginalization. Their regional arrangements are at the same time fragile and ineffective. Their overall situation makes security regionalism and developmental regionalism more important than the creation of free trade regimes. They are necessarily more introverted. The core regions are those regions which are politically capable, no matter whether such capability is expressed in the form of a political organization or not. So far only one of the three core regions, namely Europe, aspires to build such an organization. The other two, that is North America and East Asia, are both economically strong, but so far they lack a regional political order. Structurally close to core are the intermediate regions, all in preparation for being incorporated in the core, the speed depending on their good, core-like, behaviour. They are:- a. Central Europe, obediently waiting first in line for membership in the European Union. b. Latin America and the Caribbean, in the process of becoming North Americanized. c. China, South-East Asia and the European Pacific, or Oceania (Australia, New Zealand), all now being drawn by Chinese and Japanese capital into the East Asia economic space. 17. Remaining in the periphery are thus the following five regions:- a. The post-Soviet area, the major parts of it now in the process of being reintegrated in the form of Commonwealth of Independent States (perhaps laying the ground for a future core region). b. The Balkans, where the countries have lost whatever little tradition of cooperation they once might have been involved in. c. The Middle East, a region defined from outside and with a most unsettled regional structure. d. South Asia, with a very low level of regionness, because of the cold war (sometimes getting hot) between the two major powers, India and Pakistan. e. Finally, Africa, where in many countries the political structures called states are falling apart. 19. Major indicators. By 2025, According to an International Futures model measuring GDP, defense spending, population, and technology for individual states, the relative political and economic clout of many countries will shift. The United States however, will find itself in the position of being one of a number of important actors on the world stage, albeit still the most powerful one. The relationship between achievements in science and technology and economic growth will be one of the leading factors of the US power. As per National Innovation System (NIS) contracted global survey of scientific experts, the United States currently boasts a stronger innovation system than the developing economies. Main indicators and determents of the major powers in 2025 Country Population GDP Economy Military Spending USA China 6.8 India 6.2 Russia Graphically the data could be depicted as International Organizations, 2020-2025 (%/year) 21. Analysis. Five very different countries: China, India, Brazil, Russia and South Africa are emerging. The shape of the global order is largely a function of the prevailing global power balance. Nevertheless, there are three conditions that could lead to the end of this liberal international order. a. Though it is possible that another hegemon would rise at some point, this is unlikely to happen at least in the next two decades. We have had two dramatic transitions in the global system in the last century, but both happened as a consequence of the collapse of major powers. The end of the Second World War saw the demise of not just Germany and Japan but many European great powers, leaving a bipolar order dominated by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 converted that bipolar system into a unipolar one. While there are plenty of predictions of other great powers rising, there are none that suggest the U.S. will collapse. And short of that, what we are likely to witness are gradual rather than dramatic changes in the balance of power, and these will take a lot longer than two decades. Hence, the possibility of a new global order framed by another global hegemon is not very likely in the immediate future. b. The second possibility, more probable than the first, is the rise of several new powers such as China, Russia, Brazil, India, South Korea who are growing strong enough to share the stage with proportional strength with the U.S., even if they do not necessarily match the U.S. Such a multipolar order could gradually erode the current international liberal order. But this will not be because these powers do not share the norms of the curre

Friday, September 20, 2019

Deep Sea Vents: Origin of Life Theory

Deep Sea Vents: Origin of Life Theory Assess one hypothesis of the origin of life:  Life may have emerged from deep sea vents Introduction Fossil evidence confirms that life on Earth existed at least 3.5 billion years ago (Orgel 1998). This rapid appearance of life is considered to be a remarkable event after the late heavy bombardment 100 million years before, which had the potential to destroy any possible habitats suited to living organisms (Abramov Mojzsis 2009). All life today can be phylogenetically linked to a last universal common ancestor (LUCA) whose closest known relatives are present day hyperthermophiles (Abramov Mojzsis 2009, Glansdorff Labedan 2008). This suggests that the earliest form of life on Earth may have originated from a single cell which emerged spontaneously in a high temperature environment. It is assumed that the development of the first living protocell occurred through a stepwise accumulation of necessary components (Mirazo et al. 2014). Experiments have shown that the simple prebiotic molecules required can be made under various conditions independent of a biological system (Orgel 1998, Mirazo et al. 2014) and it is often hypothesised that these reactions could have occurred near hydrothermal vents (Huber Wachtershauser 2006, Dai 2012, Budin et al. 2009). The ways in which these prebiotic molecules assembled into a self-sustaining cell have not yet been elucidated. This has led to some ambiguity regarding which prebiotic materials and chemical processes are required for the initiation of life (Mirazo et al. 2014). Assessing the ways in which life may have originated could provide insight into the possible locations of extraterrestrial life in our solar system (Spiegel Turner 2011). While current research aims to identify a single origin of life, it is important to observe multiple possibilities to ensure continued progress. Defining life – the cell To determine the point at which life first emerged, it is important to identify the features which separate living biological entities from non-living chemical building blocks. This paper will therefore conform to the assumptions that the universal unit of life is the cell (Palmer 2013) and that all living organisms are autonomous and self-replicating (Bich Damiano 2012). With these definitions in mind, it can be seen that all life on Earth shares three major cellular properties: a genetic code for information storage and replication, metabolism for the acquisition of energy and nutrients, as well as selectively permeable membranes that separate them from the surrounding environment (Mirazo et al. 2014). These components are made up of complex organic molecules that are commonly synthesised from within the cell itself. Life today uses nucleic acids for their genetic code, amino acids make up metabolic proteins and lipids form cell membranes (Mirazo et al. 2014). If we assume that th e first living cell from which all life ascended also consisted of these types of molecules, we must consider how they formed independently under early Earth conditions. Starting materials and chemical evolution Similar to how multicellular organisms emerged through increasing complexity and natural selection from the environment, the building blocks for life are thought to have developed through a process of chemical evolution. The Miller-Urey experiment in 1953 showed that amino acids can be formed quite readily from simple materials such as hydrogen, methane and ammonia when subject to an electric charge (Orgel 1998, Mirazo et al. 2014). While is it commonly suggested that the strongly reducing conditions used in the experiment may not have been analogous to the true early Earth conditions, it was the first of its kind to prove that complex organic molecules can be made without the help of a living system (Mirazo et al. 2014). Many experiments since then have shown similar abilities of simple molecules to reach prebiotic complexity under a variety of different conditions (Keller et al. 2014, Longo et al. 2012, Novikov Copley 2013). Research in 2006 showed the possibility of producing ÃŽ ±-hydroxy and ÃŽ ±-amino acids from simple molecules under high pressure and temperature with nickel and iron catalysis (Huber Wachtershauser 2006). These conditions and reactants were likely to be present in concentration and temperature gradients at volcanoes or hydrothermal vents in the early acidic ocean (Huber Wachtershauser 2006). Later simulation experiments have also shown that polynucleotides have the potential to be produced near alkaline deep sea vents and that protocell-like vesicles can form in thermal diffusion columns (Dai 2012, Budin et al. 2009). The typical materials used in these experiments are likely to have been present on Earth before the emergence of life and are listed by Mirazo, Briones and Escosura (2014): The main starting materials in prebiotic chemistry are one-, two-, and three-carbon atom molecules, such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanate, cyanogen, formaldehyde, formamide, formic acid, ammonium formate, ammonium cyanide, urea, acetaldehyde, cyanoacetylene, and cyanoacetaldehyde (p. 289). These molecules can be produced from gaseous mixtures of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen, ammonia and water through UV radiation, shock waves or spark discharge (Mirazo et al. 2014). Given appropriate conditions, the resulting materials can then combine further through redox, photochemical or hydrolytic reactions (Mirazo et al. 2014). The origins of prebiotic monomers are often debated (Orgel 1998, Mirazo et al. 2014). It is proposed that the required quantities of starting materials were not being produced in the vast oceans of the early Earth. It is therefore speculated that they were unable to achieve sufficient concentrations for further synthesis (Mirazo et al. 2014). An alternative source of starting materials to their formation on the early Earth is their possible delivery from space during the late heavy bombardment (Mirazo et al. 2014, Orgel 1998). Meteorite analyses show that they can contain a wide variety of organic materials, including those which are used by living organisms (see table 1). The amount of organic matter deposited during this period is estimated to be two to four orders of magnitude higher than the current mass of the biosphere. It is therefore possible that a significant portion of the staring materials on Earth were of extraterrestrial origin (Mirazo et al. 2014, Orgel 1998). This als o suggests that organic synthesis is a universal process (Longo et al. 2012). Source: Mirazo, Briones and Escosura 2014 p. 289. Genes, metabolism and membranes The origin of more complex prebiotic structures such as membranes, polypeptides and genes are significantly less distinct. The agreement that living organisms require the ability to replicate imposes that the first form of life probably emerged from an RNA world (Vasas et al. 2009). However, the abiotic production of RNA has been shown to be remarkably difficult. While a metabolism first model addresses this issue (Novikov Copley 2013), it is uncertain if the process adheres to the definition of life (Vasas et al. 2009). Huber and Wà ¤chtershà ¤user (2006) theorise that life emerged stepwise from a â€Å"pioneer metabolism† to a fully functioning organism. Whereas Budin et al. (2009) suggest that the spontaneous formation of amphiphilic membranes in rock microchannels of deep sea vents may have provided suitable housings for the initial polymerisation of nucleotides. An all-encompassing view is held by Mirazo, Briones and Escosura (2014), stating that: When these various difficulties are considered, it is unlikely that scientists will ever know which exact synthetic itinerary led to the first forms of life. A nonhistorical point of view might be more fruitful, the target of research turning to be the general physicochemical processes that could trigger the transition from a nonliving chemical system into a protoliving one and, finally, into a living organism (p. 287). Nonetheless, there is a significant absence of evidence suggesting that any collection of chemical processes will lead to a living entity (Spiegel Turner 2012). To reject the discrete steps that may have led to the emergence of a cell could limit our understanding of how life is formed. Why hydrothermal vents? Hydrothermal vents currently support dense and diverse communities of organisms, indicating that their wide-ranging chemical and physical gradients have a remarkable capacity for supporting life (Novikov Copley 2013) (see figure 1). Their internal and nearby structures have the potential to provide microenvironments for concentrating organic materials and catalytic minerals. They can provide both high and low temperatures which can assist in the production of high activation energy and low thermal stability materials, respectively (Novikov Copley 2013). Hyperthermophilic microorganisms have been reported to exist in temperatures between 80 °C and 100 °C and many species are the closest living relatives to the last universal common ancestor (Glansdorff Labedan 2008). It is speculated that the thermotolerance of the early descendants of LUCA was an adaptive deviation from the original protocell (Glansdorff Labedan 2008). Nonetheless, evidence suggests that LUCA was moderate the rmophilic (40 °C to 80 °C) to mesophilic (20 °C to 45 °C), possibly signifying a broad preferred temperature range (Glansdorff Labedan 2008). If life originally emerged from a hydrothermal environment, it can be expected that it would require a potential for adaptability to survive in such varying conditions. Figure 1. Diagram of the chemical and physical interactions that occur in and around hydrothermal vents. A wide variety of temperatures and chemical products exist in the vicinity of a deep sea vent. Source: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory 2013. Issues and important considerations As previously mentioned, there is currently no experimental evidence of a transition from prebiotic organic material to a fully replicating autonomous system. It is therefore possible that the conditions applied in simulation experiments still do not replicate those of the early Earth. The first life on Earth may have been introduced from elsewhere during the late heavy bombardment (Abramov Mojzsis 2009) and may therefore have been in conditions that are completely unlike those considered in the literature. Additionally, the earliest organisms may have been incomparable to the life that exists today. Alternatively, the models which are applied to define life may be inhibitory to our understanding of its origin. Vlaardingerbroek (2012) suggests that the separation between biological and chemical evolution and a specific origin of life is problematic, advising instead to observe the emergence of life as a gradual and detailed process absent of a single impartial event. Conclusions and future possibilities Although the theory of life emerging from hydrothermal vents is convincing, we should maintain a broad perspective on the possibilities of the origin of life until more information is acquired. Many of the current hypotheses are plausible – the abiotic production of building blocks has been proven in a multitude of different instances. However, evidence that can confirm the possibility of making a cell abiotically from these building blocks is needed to reinforce this idea. If abiogenesis is found to be common and rapid given appropriate conditions, it is likely that it is occurring on many other locations in space (Spiegel Turner 2011). Such possibilities would lead to a plethora of exciting research opportunities into the discovery of extraterrestrial life. References Abramov, O., Mojzsis, S. J. (2009) Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment, Nature, 459(7245): 419–422. Bich, L., Damiano, L. (2012) Life, Autonomy and Cognition: An Organizational Approach to the Definition of the Universal Properties of Life, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 42(5): 389–397. Budin, I., Bruckner, R. J., Szostak, J. W. (2009) Formation of Protocell-like Vesicles in a Thermal Diffusion Column, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131(28): 9628–9629. Dai, J. (2012) Novel molecular fossils of bacteria: Insights into hydrothermal origin of life, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310: 249–256. Glansdorff, N., Xu, Y., Labedan, B. (2008) The Last Universal Common Ancestor: emergence, constitution and genetic legacy of an elusive forerunner, Biology Direct, 3(1): 29. Huber, C., Wachtershauser, G. (2006) ÃŽ ±-Hydroxy and ÃŽ ±-Amino Acids Under Possible Hadean, Volcanic Origin-of-Life Conditions, Science, 314(5799): 630–632. Keller, M. A., Turchyn, A. V., Ralser, M. (2014) Non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway-like reactions in a plausible Archean ocean, Molecular Systems Biology, 10(725): 1–12. Lal, A. K. (2008) Origin of Life, Astrophysics and Space Science, 317(3-4): 267–278. Longo, L. M., Lee, J., Blaber, M. (2013) Simplified protein design biased for prebiotic amino acids yields a foldable, halophilic protein, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(6): 2135–2139. Novikov, Y., Copley, S. D. (2013) Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(33): 13283–13288. Orgel, L. E. (1998) The origin of life – a review of facts and speculations, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 4(98): 491–495. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (2013) Vent Fluid Chemistry. Retrieved from Palmer, B. S. (2012) A review on the spontaneous formation of the building blocks of life and the generation of a set of hypotheses governing universal abiogenesis, International Journal of Astrobiology, 12(01): 39–44. Ruiz-Mirazo, K., Briones, C., de la Escosura, A. (2014) Prebiotic Systems Chemistry: New Perspectives for the Origins of Life, Chemical Reviews, 114(1): 285–366. Spiegel, D. S., Turner, E. L. (2011) Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life’s early emergence on Earth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(2): 395–400. Vasas, V., Szathmary, E., Santos, M. (2010) Lack of evolvability in self-sustaining autocatalytic networks constraints metabolism-first scenarios for the origin of life, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(4): 1470–1475. Vlaardingerbroek, B. (2012) The Sorites Paradox, ‘Life,’ and Abiogenesis, Evolution: Education and Outreach, 5(3): 399–401. Barco NV Analysis: SWOT, Position and Product Life Cycle Barco NV Analysis: SWOT, Position and Product Life Cycle Barco NV is one of the top three global manufacturer, focused on expensive, high-quality products in a niche market. It focuses on the graphic projector, projector market has the greatest growth and income. Barcos market share of 4%, a video projector, 23% and 55% of the data projector graphics projector. Barcos main competitors, Sony, Electrohome and NEC. In my opinion, scrap the BD700 and star new high-end projector is the smarter choice. His strongest competitor, Sony develops a new product 1270 super data projector and trade show in the Boston. It is a high-performance graphics applications and low price. From the Table A Product Segment Growth, 1988, we can find that Graphics predicted annual growth, 1989-1994 were 40.2% from 1988 4% units. Data only grows 12.3% from 1988 33% units. Its mean graphics market growth is more than Datas market growth. The BD700 is BarcoData700. Datas market is growing slowly. That means new product BD700 is fail product and fail in the market. Thats why I agree scrap the BD700. I will show more analyze in my product life cycle. And BG400 (BarcoGraphics400) is old model. If 1270 go in the market, BG400 will be kick-off from the market, because BG400 is the high price and low benefit product when 1270 come in. To star new high-end projector it is the smarter choice. Barco can develop new-product like as BG800 or upgrading BG700. In the Niche marketing, Barco need to keep pursuing top of the line in the high-end niche market and declining the prices, and Barco can win back the competitive edgy. Mission Statement High quality, high technology, popular, and five stars customers service, are all in ours product. Three levels of product Projector is popular in the world, especially graphics projector. Projector is used in the class by the professors and very important in multimedia instruction. Thats the core customer value. Its customers needs. And in these customers, when they chose the projectors they are care about the brand name, features, quality level, packaging, and design, its customers wants, these are actual product. And most customers are actually care about the band name, features, quality level, packaging, and design, and these are actual product. The features are the points Barcos new high-end projectors positioning, and also it is customer wants. In the Actual product, I will focus on the features, Barcos BG800 projector is new scanning frequency and new tubes than the 1270 the BG800 with at least 90kHz of scanning frequency and new tubes (p 249). Barco is famous brand name in the worldwide. Sony, it is not a profession projector brand. Customers will choose the professional brand-Barco. However, in the augmented product, customers want a good after-sale service and product support. In that part, Sony has good after-sale service and product support. That also is a good point for Barcos customer future cost, and collect customers information for the new-products. Also, it will become the point that customers care about when they chose the company. Barco need to improve that part, because thats customer wants. And its customer future cost, and researcher can collect customer information and wants from the new-products in the test marketing. Barco and Sonys strengths and weaknesses. First, Barcos products have a better scan speed is higher than the Sony. Barco dealer for 20% of the box distributors and 80% of the dealers and the dealer of Sony were 50%, tank dealers, and 50% of the system dealer. And we clearly can see customer needs and wants of three levels of product. Positioning is important part of customer wants. Positioning New high-end products are very important for Barco, its positioning on the high-performance graphics applications and middle high price like as BG800. Because Barcos strong competitor, Sonys 1270 is high-performance graphics applications and low price. Keeping high technology, appropriate price cut, and doing market research are the good way for the new-products. The BG800 in type of consumer product is classified the shopping products. Customer would like to compare these product, features, design, brand name, quality level, and packaging. The BG800 is the one Barco develop and position for the high-end products. Product life cycle In the product life cycle, BD700 are almost developed. But BD700 is the fail product like what I said in the beginning. But Barco already paid for the BD700 development fee and that was the sink cost. And Barco cannot take this money back. In the product life cycle, if BD700 is the right product, it can run like the curve, keeping to spent money for introduction. But the problem is BD700 is the fail product, its wrong product. In the development, its the sink cost. Sony is in the product development area, and they can stop and decline the loss, but Barco. Right now Sonys product 1270 is passed the product development area and they will keep to following the product life cycle curve, introduction, growth, maturity, and Decline. The profits will between the end of introduction and the end of decline. Barco can start to develop BG800 and also follow the curve, because BG800 is the right product right now. Possible Value Propositions From the upper, we can find that BG400 is in the more prices and more benefits area. But when 1270 are come in the market. BG400 will go down to the more prices and less benefits. And the 1270 will go to the less prices and more benefits area. Its very bad for BG400. Because no one want to buy a expensive and less benefits product. Barco will lose that market. From the positioning, BG800 will go in to the more prices and more benefits area. Thats good to fight with 1270 in the market. Customers really need the less prices and more benefits product, but some customers want more of the product, like they want and compare different brand name, features, and after-sale service. So they will choose BG800. The New-Product Development Process In the idea generation, Barco has many ideas. I will talk about three ideas from Barco; finish the BD700, scrap the BD700 and start new high-end projector, and improve BD700. In the idea screening, I suggest Barco scrap the BD700 and start new high-end projector. If that idea is passed, Barco will continue the next part-concept development and testing. BG800 is show up in the concept development and testing of the new-product development process. And then, Barco can do the marketing strategy development and business analysis. In the marketing strategy development, Barco can follow the Niche market to find what they fit. Following the Niche marketing, Barco can position the BG800 to the high-performance graphics applications and middle high price. So their marketing strategy will fit at high-performance and high price or middle high price. In the Business analysis, Barco need to do more market research and collect more information from the customers, price, needs, and wants. The third step will go in to the product development like as the graph of product life cycle, beginning the product development and products introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. The test marketing is beginning on the products growth. That means in the test marketing, it is beginning on the products growth and test the new product whether or not fit in the market growth and market share. And the last part, it will star the commercialization. SWOT Analyzing the Barcos superiority from the case, its show that Barco has two big markets: the United States and Western Europe. From the Table B Geographic Segment Growth, Barco has 50% units in the United States and 36% units in the Western Europe 1988 and the predicted annual growth of each are 9% and 11.5% from 1989 to 1994. And the weakness part is the relationship with dealer. Barco hasnt the system dealer who know-how of integrate and install equipment packages. From the Table D BPSs Pricing Index, BPS has 41% direct cost and 59% gross margin, and this is the high margin. Existing dealers liked to sell BPSs products. But BPSs product is complexity. In 1989, few dealers could survive without the Sony volume; an estimated 80% to 90% of professional audiovisual dealers worldwide Sony products because of reliability and low price among dealers (p. 244). Sony has a lot of dealers and good for his product selling. The opportunity of Barcos products are high technology and famous brand in the worldwide of projectors. Barco can develop high-end product BG800 or upgrading BG700. The threat is Barco need to scrap BD700 production. It means they lose a lot of money and need more time for the new high-end product development. And they will lose a lot of market share from their competitors. If the BG800 are not fit in the market, Barco will lose and never come back. Line stretching and Line filling Barco need to fill in the gap of Sony. Keeping the high quality and dropping the price, its the good way to fill the line of product line decisions. Right now Barco is in the high quality and high prices. And Sony is in the low prices and low quality. Sony keeps the low price and develops high quality product, 1270. If Barco develops BD700, the low price and low quality, will lose the market. If Barco scarp the BD700 and develops the high-end product BG800, it would be keep their high quality. Barco havent low price product, so he has no line filling. Barco have high price and high quality product. Barco will have line filling when he drop the price and keep high quality. Finding the gap of Sony is the good way to win the battle. Summary Surviving in the competitive market is not easy. To scrap BD700 and start a new high-end product, BG800, is the smarter choice. From the analysis, Barco need to find their new product whether or not fit in the market. Finding the customers needs and wants, its very important. Barco need to redefine its target market from collecting customers feedback and competitors strategic. To position new-product, its still important for Barcos line filling. Positioning also use to the Possible Value Propositions, to find where the area is and where is the competitors. Understanding the product life cycle is good for losing money and scraping the fail products. The right product will follow the product life cycle curves. Understanding the SWOT, Barco has two big markets: the United States and Western Europe. the weakness part is the relationship with dealer. The opportunity of Barcos products are high technology and famous brand in the worldwide of projectors. Barco can develop high-end product B G800 or upgrading BG700. The threat is Barco need to scrap BD700 production. In the line stretching and line filling part, Barco need to find his line, high prices and high quality, dropping the prices and keeping high quality are go way to filling the line of product line decisions.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Roger Williams :: essays research papers

Roger Williams ... A Brief Biography Drypoint etching, 1936, by Arthur W. Heintzelman, commemorating the Tercentenary of the founding of Rhode Island by Roger Williams. Courtesy of Roger Williams University Archives. ROGER WILLIAMS was born in London, circa 1604, the son of James and Alice (Pemberton) Williams. James, the son of Mark and Agnes (Audley) Williams was a "merchant Tailor" (an importer and trader) and probably a man of some importance. His will, proved 19 November 1621, left, in addition to bequests to his "loving wife, Alice," to his sons, Sydrach, Roger and Robert, and to his daughter Catherine, money and bread to the poor in various sections of London. The will of Alice (Pemberton) Williams was admitted to probate 26 January 1634. Among other bequests, she left the sum of Ten Pounds yearly for twenty years to her son, Roger Williams, "now beyond the seas." She further provided that if Roger predeceased her, "what remaineth thereof unpaid ... shall be paid to his wife and daughter...." Obviously, by the time of her death, Roger's mother was aware of the birth in America in 1633 of her grandchild, Mary Williams. Roger's youth was spent in the parish of "St. Sepulchre's, without Newgate, London." While a young man, he must have been aware of the numerous burnings at the stake that had taken place at nearby Smithfield of so-called Puritans or heretics. This probably influenced his later strong beliefs in civic and religious liberty. During his teens, Roger Williams came to the attention of Sir Edward Coke, a brilliant lawyer and one-time Chief Justice of England, through whose influence he was enrolled at Sutton's Hospital, a part of Charter House, a school in London. He next entered Pembroke College at Cambridge University from which he graduated in 1627. All of the literature currently available at Pembroke to prospective students mentions Roger Williams, his part in the Reformation, and his founding of the Colony of Rhode Island. At Pembroke, he was one of eight granted scholarships based on excellence in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Pembroke College in Providence, once the women's college of Brown University, was named after Pembroke at Cambridge in honor of Roger Williams. In the years after he left Cambridge, Roger Williams was Chaplain to a wealthy family, and on 15 December 1629, he married MARY BARNARD at the Church of High Laver, Essex, England. Even at this time, he became a controversial figure because of his ideas on freedom of worship.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Digital Encoding and Music Sharing :: Internet

Digital Encoding and Music Sharing Computers have revolutionized the world of music. Through the Internet, users can get any type of music at little to no cost. They practically eliminate the need to purchase new CD’s. This new concept is made possible through the process of digital encoding. The Internet is only a tool allow the freedom of sharing music. Mp3’s are the most popular form of encoded digital music and are the most readily available for the Internet. Most Mp3 players are played on winamp, which is available to the public. There has also been a great amount of controversy within the free sharing of Mp3’s. Mp3’s stands for Mpeg layer-3 type format media file. Mp3’s are digitally compressed songs form CD’s. The average track on a CD is proximally 50 megabytes in size. Through the process of digital compression modern software can minimize the amount of space for the same CD track to one-tenth the size, making the average Mp3 file 5 megs, losing only minimal amount of quality. The small amount of space that the Mp3 take up on the hard drive is much less than copying a .wav file from a CD. The average modem can transfer 5 Megs of information in about 10 min. It would take hours to transfer a .wav file of the same music quality. This is what makes mp3’s so popular for Internet and computer users. The average CD on the market today costs about 20 dollars. Through the uses of the Internet and Mp3 sharing communities such as Napster, Scour net, File quest, and Imesh, users can build a music library for a fraction of the cost of purchasing normal CD’s from a music store. Napster is one of the front-runners in Mp3 sharing. It works by networking your computer to every other computer that is logged onto Napster. Users can search for any song and download any song that is on any computer that is log onto the network. This program is so simple that a 10 year old can uses it. The simplicity of the program made Napster a multimillion-user program within months of it’s beginning. Napster has also made some real powerful enemies by allowing users to trade music. The music industry survives mainly on the sales of CD’s. Napster enables one person to purchase the CD, and through the use of their computer, they give the music to millions of different users.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Natural environment Essay

History depicts that in the past, apartheid and Christian national education policies meant that races and cultures were segregated in schools and resources were unevenly distributed, making the role and the task of the teacher extra difficult in terms of balancing between the workload and catering for all learners needs. Education is inherently political as it involves values and goals in relation to such fundamental questions as what kind of individual and society are we trying to shape? These questions cannot be answered in a factual or technical way because they are questions of opinions, values and ideology and they are inevitably disagreements and conflicts (Carter, Harber & Serfi, 2003). The nature and reality of educators is that, it places so much importance on the teacher to ensure that learners succeed at the end of the day, although there are some factors external such as the environment, socio-economic and resources issues and resources which disturbs or defeats the purp ose of education. The teacher can either make or break the progress of the learner, meaning the teacher should cater equally for all the needs of the learners, as learners themselves are different in terms of race, gender and class. This means that the teacher should not be bias or discriminate towards a certain gender, race or class, as this will have a negative impact on the success or progress of the learners. In this essay I will discuss my experiences with the teachers who made a difference, the role they played in terms of perceiving gender, race and class in my life, and the reasons why they were significant and finally I will discuss the role I will play as a future teacher regardless of gender, race and class of the learners. The most features in class or school environment, is for the teacher to understand his or her learners and mostly interact with them on continuous basis, as problems learners encounter arise from time to time. These problems tend to distract learners and need the intervention of the teacher themselves. Sometimes learners struggle with the content required, a problem at home or moreover a personal problem. A good teacher must anticipate and have insight of foretelling and differenti ate amongst learners that are showing signs of encountering problem

Monday, September 16, 2019

Marijuana Within Today’s Society

There has been a long term controversy over the legalization of Marijuana in the United State. Some believe it should be legal in the United States because it could â€Å"create a source of additional tax revenues and police and courts would be freed up for more serious crimes†. Others believe it should be an illegal drug because of its health risks. Marijuana should remain illegal in the United States as a schedule I controlled substance due to the many physical and psychological effects it has on it’s users as well as the harmful effects it has on today’s society.Marijuana acts on the brains reward system which governs the response to pleasurable things. Users of marijuana seek the euphoric feeling or â€Å"high† caused by the drug. THC enters the body and creates the high the marijuana user seeks by stimulating brain cells to release dopamine, which is a chemical found in the brain. Marijuana has many effects on the body, both short and long, though the re is limited research on the long lasting effects of marijuana use. The acute effects present during intoxication may include but are not limited to impairments to the short memory, attention, judgment, coordination, balance and other cognitive functions.Smoking marijuana may also distort the user’s depth perception. The heart rate of a person during their intoxication increases as well as their blood pressure. Just seconds after inhaling marijuana smoke the persons bronchial passages enlarge and relax. Blood vessels in the eye expand which commonly makes the user’s eyes look red or bloodshot. Users begin to feel relaxed, have heightened sensory perception, and altered perception of time. A User may laugh and have an increase in appetite after smoking marijuana.Large doses of marijuana sometimes lead to acute psychosis including hallucinations, delusions or a loss of sense of personal identity. Some users may have psychotic episodes such as anxiety, fear, distrust, pa nic and paranoia. After the euphoric feeling subsides or fades the person may feel depressed or tired. There is limited knowledge or information on the long term effects of smoking marijuana. Some studies suggest that effects on the brain can build up and deteriorate critical life skills over time. Effects often are worse for people with mental disorders, or simply by virtue of the normal aging process.Schizophrenia like disorders have been associated with the use of marijuana in vulnerable individuals. Long term users may have sleep impairment or suffer from insomnia. Chronic abuse of marijuana increases the risk of chronic cough or bronchitis. Smoking Marijuana has the same, if not worse, respiratory problems as tobacco, such as frequent acute chest illness and a risk of lung infection. Using Marijuana has the potential to create cancer of the lungs and other parts of the reparatory tract because marijuana contains irritants and carcinogens up to 70% more than tobacco smoke.Some b elieve that marijuana may impair the ability to form new memories and focus which makes learning, doing complicated tasks, participating in athletics and driving difficult. The effects of marijuana use can last days or even weeks after the acute effects wear off, which mean a daily user is functioning at a reduced intellectual level most or all of the time. Contrary to popular belief marijuana is an addictive drug. The use of marijuana has many harmful effects to the users but it also affects others who do not participate in the use of marijuana.The World Health Organization ranks the United States first among 17 European and North America countries for prevalent use of marijuana. In 2008, 2. 2 million Americans used marijuana for the first time and greater than half were under the age of 18. Because marijuana affects brain systems that are still maturing through young adulthood, its use by teens may have a negative effect on their development. 42% of United States high school gradu ates have tired marijuana. Marijuana smoking students compared to non-marijuana smoking students tend to have lower grades and a higher dropout rate.It is easily assumed that while being under the influence of marijuana driving would become more difficult because of the loss of coordination, balance and the perception of depth. The National Highway Traffic Administration issued a report stating that 18% of motor vehicle driver’s deaths involved drugs other than alcohol. 6. 8% of drivers, mostly under the age of 35, involved in accidents tested positive for THC. There many questions about the use of marijuana while a woman is pregnant.Even low amounts of THC, when administered during the prenatal period, could have profound and long lasting consequences on the brain and behavior of the unborn child. Marijuana exposed children show gaps in problem solving, memory and ability to remain attentive in a classroom setting. Marijuana also affects places of employment. In a study amon g postal workers, employees who tested positive for marijuana on a pre-employment urine drug test had 55% more industrial accidents, 85% more injuries and a 75% increase in absenteeism compared to those who tested negative for marijuana.There is a higher job turn over rate for people who choose to use marijuana and be employed. Employees who use marijuana tend to have more absences, tardiness, accidents and worker compensation claims. Marijuana use has adverse physical, mental, emotional and behavior effects. It causes students to perform poorly in school. Marijuana use affects many of it’s users at their place of employment due to being absent and causing more accidents in the work place making it unsafe for others.Many children are born with defects and behavior problems due to the poor judgment of their mothers, who partook in the use of marijuana during the prenatal period. The roads in America are polluted with drivers under the influence of marijuana whose judgment and motor skills are impaired. Marijuana should remain illegal in the United States due to the harmful effects on its users as well as innocent bystanders.